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Patterns of State, County, and Local ID/DD Funding Allocation

Data Note No. 24, 2009


Originally published: 9/9

Data Source: The ICI National Survey of Day and Employment Outcomes

State, County, and Local ID/DD dollars are one of the largest sources of funds for day and employment services; additionally as a funding source that is directly controlled within each state it is one of the most flexible sources of dollars for day and employment services. As Figure 1 shows, the allocation of these funds varied based upon year and service category: integrated employment, community based non-work, facility based work, and facility based non-work.

Figure: State, County, and Local ID/DD Dollar Distribution by Service Category by Year

tate, County, and Local ID/DD Dollar Distribution by Service Category by Year

Total reported state, county, and local ID/DD dollars have decreased from $1,480,531,831 (n=25) to $911,446,493 (n=23) between 1999 and 2007. The percentage of funds allocated to all facility-based services declined from 65% in 1999 to 36% in 2007 but did not result in an increase in funds being allocated towards integrated employment; instead dollars shifted towards community based non-work services. Reported dollars for community based non-work increased from $279,490,187 (n=13) to $454,974,091 (n=17) between 1999 and 2007. This change coincided with a decrease in the funds allocated towards facility-based non-work services from $470,893,634 (n=16) to $213,496,348 (n=18). One potential explanation for the significant redistribution of funds towards community based non-work services is that traditional facility-based non-work services are being rebranded as community based non-work services.

Ultimately the data demonstrates that state, county and local ID/DD dollars are not trending towards integrated employment and raises concerns about the clarity of the service system’s goals for community employment. The changes in the distribution of funding could also indicate that community-based non-work services are replacing rather than supplementing integrated employment services. States need to clarify the intent and goals of community-based non-work services and their relationship to integrated employment.

Suggested Citation: Winsor, J.E. 2009. Patterns of State, County, and Local ID/DD Funding Allocation. DataNote Series, Data Note XXIV. Boston, MA: Institute for Community Inclusion.

Integrated employment includes all competitive employment, individual supported employment, group supported employment, and self-employment related supports. Community-based non-work includes all services that are focused on supporting people with disabilities to access community activities where most people do not have disabilities. Facility-based work includes all employment services that occur in a segregated setting, where the majority employees have disability, and are also referred to as Sheltered Workshops, Work Activity, or Extended Employment programs. Facility-based non-work includes psycho/social skills, activities of daily living, recreation, and/or professional therapies, and is also referred to as Day Activity, Day Habilitation, and Medical Day Care programs.

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