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National Day and Employment Service Trends in MR/DD Agencies

Data Note 11b, 2007


Originally published: 9/2007

Suggested audiences:

In FY2004, 22% of individuals receiving day supports from state mental retardation or developmental disability (MR/DD) agencies participated in integrated employment while 56.5% of individuals were supported in facility-based settings. While the data demonstrate a continued decrease in the percent of people served in facility-based settings (from 60% in 1999 to 57% in 2004), it also suggests a slight decrease in the percent served in integrated employment (from 25.5% in 1999 to 22% in 2004).

Chart of Service Distribution by Setting by Year

The data represented here describe the core elements of ICI's National Survey of Day and Employment Services. Integrated employment includes both individual employment and group supported employment and facility-based settings include both facility-based work services and facility-based non-work services. Reported participation in community-based non-work services, defined as non job-related supports focusing on community involvement and typically identified as community integration or community participation services, has steadily increased since this service was added to the survey in 1996, growing from 14.5% in 1999 to 21% in 2004.

While the percent of people supported in integrated settings increased between FY1999 and FY2004, a majority of people are still supported in facility-based settings. The growth in community-based non-work paired with the decrease in participation in integrated employment raises concerns about the clarity of the service system's employment goals. It is possible that community-based non-work services are replacing rather than supplementing support for integrated employment. States need to clarify the intent and goals of community-based non-work services.

Facility-based settings continue to make up the majority of expenditures for day and employment services. Nationally facility-based work and facility-based non-work services received 57% of the funding for day and employment services, while integrated employment received 12% of the funding in FY2004. This data indicates that the system of funding day and employment services for people with intellectual disabilities still favors facility-based service options.


All figures in this data note are from The ICI National Survey of Day and Employment Services for People with Developmental Disabilities. The ICI National Survey of Day and Employment Services for People with Developmental Disabilities is a longitudinal study (FY1988 to FY2004) commissioned by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities to analyze community-based day and employment service trends for individuals with mental retardation and closely related conditions.

Suggested Citation:

Winsor, J., & Butterworth, J. 2007. National Day and Employment Service Trends in MR/DD Agencies. DataNote Series, Data Note XII. Boston, MA: Institute for Community Inclusion.


This is a project of the Institute for Community Inclusion at UMass Boston supported in part by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under cooperative agreement #90DN0126. The opinions contained in this website are those of the grantee and do not necessarily reflect those of the funders.