ICI publications by Frank A. Smith

Shifts in VR Outcome Trends for VR Customers With and Without Intellectual Disabilities

People with intellectual disabilities (ID) aspire to gainful employment1. To assist them with this goal, state vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies offer employment services based upon Individualized Plans for Employment (IPEs) (11/2013)

VR Outcome Trends and the Recent Decline in Employment for VR Customers with Intellectual Disabilities

VR Outcome Trends and the Recent Decline in Employment for VR Customers with Intellectual Disabilities (2/2012)

Work Incentives and SSI Recipients with Intellectual Disabilities

Congress has enacted a number of work incentive programs for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients with disabilities after concluding additional incentives were necessary to help individuals become self-supporting. (7/2009)

Indicators of Labor Market Success for People with Intellectual Disabilities

Reporting meaningful indicators of labor market success for individuals with disabilities, particularly Intellectual Disabilities (ID), is challenging for a number of reasons. Measures that allow people to indicate specific disabilities like ID are uncommon in large national data sets. Additionally, the use of the “traditional” unemployment rate reported by the Department of Labor as an indicator of labor market success for people with disabilities leaves people who are not in the labor force, a significant group when it comes to subpopulations of people with disabilities, out of the calculation. In this data note, we discuss the implications of using the 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) from the U.S. Census Bureau for indicators of labor market success, including for people with ID. (6/2009)

Persons Served in Community Mental Health Programs and Employment

Data set: FY2006 Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) Uniform (6/2008)

Disability and Occupation

It is well-documented that people with disabilities have a significantly lower rate of employment than people without disabilities (36% versus 74% according to the 2006 American Community Survey (ACS). Less is known about the types of work they do. Using the occupational classification system within the ACS, researchers explored the prevalence of people with disabilities within occupational groupings and discuss its relationship to occupational growth1. Future analysis will address variation across disability groups. (12/2007)

VR Rehabilitation Rates of People with Mental Retardation/Developmental Disabilities (MR/DD) in 2005

Of the over 48,000 persons nationwide with mental retardation or other developmental disabilities (MR/DD) who closed out of the Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) system after receiving employment services in FY2005, more than half were successful closures, yielding a rehabilitation rate of 56.9%. The rehabilitation rate is calculated by dividing the number of successful closures, which is employment in any setting with the exception of sheltered workshops, by the total number of closures who received employment services. (6/2007)

Employment Rates for People With and Without Disabilities

Data show that people with disabilities are consistently less likely to be working than their non-disabled counterparts. In this data note, we compare the employment rate for working-age people with and without disabilities. (1/2007)

The Relationship Between Supported Employment Status and Minimum Wage for Vocational Rehabilitation Integrated Employment Closures in 2004

This Data Note examines how wages for VR customers in supported employment compare to those earned by other customers. (12/2006)

WIA Employment Outcomes

The U.S. Department of Labor tracks several performance measures for people served in the One-Stop system. This Data Note focuses on people with disabilities in two funding categories. Data set: WIA. (8/2006)

VR Outcomes for People with Spinal Cord Injury

An estimated 250,000 people live with a spinal cord injury (SCI). In 2004, 2382 individuals with SCI achieved successful rehabilitation with the support of state vocational rehabilitation agencies. This Data Note examines their outcomes. Data set: RSA (VR). (3/2006)

People Served in Community Mental Health Programs and Employment

he Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) provides guidance and technical assistance to decision makers at all levels of government on the design, structure, content, and use of mental health information systems. The goal is to improve the quality of mental health programs and service delivery. CMHS operates the only program in the nation that focuses on the development of data standards that provide the basis for uniform, comparable, high-quality statistics on mental health services. This makes it a model in the health care statistics field. Data is stored in the Uniform Reporting System Output Tables. (2/2013)

SSI Recipients Who Work

The National Survey of State Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Day and Employment Services is a longitudinal study commissioned by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities to analyze trends in community-based day and employment services between FY1988 and FY2009 for individuals with IDD and closely related conditions. (12/2011)

State Intellectual and Developmental Disability Agencies' Funding for Employment Services

The National Survey of State Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Day and Employment Services is a longitudinal study commissioned by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities to analyze community-based day and employment service trends between FY1988 and FY2009 for individuals with IDD and closely related conditions. (7/2011)

Job Seekers with Disabilities at One-Stop Career Centers: An Examination of Registration for Wagner-Peyser Funded Employment Services,2002 to 2009

The Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933 established a nationwide system of public employment services, known as the Employment Service. Via the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, the Employment Service was made part of the One-Stop Career Center service-delivery system. Wagner-Peyser is a primary source of funding for these centers, which make employment services available to all people, including those with disabilities. There are currently 1,800+ comprehensive One-Stop Career Centers throughout the United States, as well as satellite and affiliate centers. (6/2011)

State Intellectual and Developmental Disability Agencies' Service Trends

Since Fiscal Year 1988, the Institute for Community Inclusion has administered the National Survey of Day and Employment Programs for People with Developmental Disabilities to state Intellectual and Developmental Disability (IDD) Agencies. The work is funded by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities and is designed to describe the nature of day and employment services for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. (1/2011)

Job Seekers with Disabilities at One-Stop Career Centers: An Examination of Registration for Wagner-Peyser Funded Employment Services from 2002 to 2007

The Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933 established a nationwide system of public employment services, known as the Employment Service. Wagner-Peyser funds are a primary source of funding for the services of One–Stop Career Centers that provide employment services available to all people, including people with disabilities. This data note examines trends on a national and state-by-state basis in the number and percentage of job seekers who self-identified as having disabilities who register for Wagner-Peyser Employment Services. Readers should note that because disability status in this data source is self-identified, it is likely disability among job seekers who register for Wagner-Peyser services is underreported and the actual numbers of people with disabilities who register for services are higher. (11/2009)

Comparison of VR Outcomes for Clients with Mental Illness across System Indicators

Issue 47 Research to Practice (12/2008)

WIA Employment Outcomes and Trends

WIA Employment Outcomes and Trends (10/2008)

State Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Agencies Expenditures for Integrated Employment Services

Data set: The National Survey of Day and Employment Programs (4/2008)

Timeframe from Application to Closure in Integrated Employment for Vocational Rehabilitation Customers with Developmental Disabilities

This data note describes the integrated employment timeframe from application to closure for people with developmental disabilities (i.e., mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and autism) whose cases were closed by VR in 2006 (N = 27,579). VR typically closes cases when applicants have been in employment for at least 90 days. (1/2008)

StateData: The National Report on Employment Services and Outcomes

The StateData employment report is a product of Access to Integrated Employment, a project of the Institute for Community Inclusion (ICI) at the University of Massachusetts Boston, supported in part by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, under cooperative agreement #90DN0216. The opinions contained in this report are those of the grantee and do not necessarily reflect those of the funders. (5/2012)

Vocational Rehabilitation Services Received by Youth with Autism: Are they Associated with an Employment Outcome?

While youth with autism represent a small percentage of all vocational rehabilitation (VR) closures, the number who closed out of VR more than tripled between 2003 and 2008 (see Institute for Community Inclusion Data Note 26). As increasing numbers of youth with autism are accessing VR services, it is important to understand how they are using these services and the relationship of these services to outcomes and costs. (12/2010)

ICI: promoting inclusion for people with disabilities